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Ai Jiang was the daughter of the Marquis of Qi, and the wife of duke Zhuang.

Earlier, at the time before Ai Jiang had entered Lu, the Duke went to Qi numerous times, to have illicit affairs with Ai Jiang.

When she entered Lu, she did it together with her younger sister, Shu Jiang.

The Duke ordered the wives of the dafus to greet her with gifts of money. Dafu Xia Fu considered this disrespectful and said:

"Women's gifts should be limited to dates and chestnuts, their purpose is to accord with the proper rites.

Men's gifts should be limited to jade, silk or meat of animals and birds, their purpose is to express the status of the giver.

Now you are making women give money, this means not making a distinction between men and women.

The distinction between men and women is our country's great law. Not having it, would that be acceptable?"

The Duke did not listen, and again painted his father's, Duke Huan's, pillar in the ancestral temple with vermilion, and carved into his rafter boasting about Ai Jiang.

Ai Jiang was arrogant and lewd, and sent word to her two uncles, Prince Qingfu and Prince Ya.

Ai Jiang wanted to establish Qingfu as successor. When the Duke died, Ziban was crowned.

Qingfu plotted with Ai Jiang, then they killed Ziban at the Zhang family residence.

Then Shu Jiang's son became Duke Min.

When Duke Min was crowned, Qingfu and Ai Jiang (???)

Again she plotted with Qingfu to kill Duke Min and make Qingfu the new duke.

They ordered the diviner Yi Xi to assassinate Duke Min at Wuwei.

When he intended to crown himself, the people of Lu plotted against him, and Qingfu became afraid and fled to Ju, and Ai Jiang fled to Zhu.

Duke Huan of Qi crowned duke Xi. He heard that Ai Jiang and Qingfu were talking about harming Lu.

He then summoned Ai Jiang and poisoned her with wine. Lu then killed Qingfu.

The ode says: "she sobs and weep, but what does lament avail?" This applies here.
Note: from Bernhard Karlgren's translation of 中谷有蓷 (ode 69).



In summer, the duke went to Qi to meet his bride.

In autumn, the duke arrived from Qi.

In the eight month, his wife, the lady Jiang, entered [the capital].

On wuyin, the great officers belonging to the ducal House, and their wives, had an interview with her, and presented offerings of silks.


In the autumn, in the seventh month, on guisi, duke Huan's son, Ya, died.

In the eight month, on guihai, the duke died in the State-chamber.

In winter, in the tenth month, on jiwei, the duke's son, Ban, died.

Duke Huan's son, Qingfu, went to Qi.


In autumn, in the eight month, on xinchou, the duke died.

In the ninth month, duke Zhuang's wife, the lady Jiang, withdrew to Zhu.

Duke Huan's son, Qingfu, fled to Ju.




In autumn, when Ai Jiang arrived, the duke made the wives of the great officers, at their first interview, offer silks and gems;---which was contrary to rule. Yu Sun said, "The offerings of males are, the greatest of them, gems and silks, and the lesser, birds and animals,---the different things illustrating their rank. But the offerings of women, are only nuts, dates and pieces of dried flesh,---to show their respect. Now males and females use the same offerings;---there is no distinction between them. But the distinction between males and females is a grand law of the State, and that it should be confounded by the duchess surely is what should not be."



At an early time, the duke built a tower near the residence of the Zhang family, from which he got a sight of Meng Ren, and followed her; but she shut the door against him. He then said he would make her his wife, when she consented to his desires, cutting at the same time her arm and with the blood making a covenant with him. She afterwards bore a son to the duke, who was called Ban.


On occasion of a sacrifice for rain, the duke was discoursing on the subject at the resdience of the Liang family, while his daughter was looking on at what was taking place. The chief groom Luo was outside the wall, and attempted to make sport with her, which incensed her brother Ban, so that he ordered Luo to be scourged. when the duke heard of it, he said, "You should have had him put to death. He is not a man to be scourged. Luo is possessed of great strength and can throw the cover of a carriage over the south gate."


When the duke was ill, he consulted his half-brother Shuya about who should be his successor, and Ya said, "Qingfu has ability." The duke also asked his full brother Jiyou, who replied that he would support Ban to the death. "A little ago," said the duke, "Ya mentioned the ability of Qingfu." On this Chengji [Jiyou] sent a messenger with the duke's order to command Xishu [Shuya] to wait in the family of the officer Qian Wu, where he made Qian Ji present poison to him, with the message, "Drunk it, and your posterity shall be preserved in the State. If you do not drink it, you shall die, and your posterity shall be made no account of." He drank the poison, returned as far as Kuiquan, and died. His son was made the first of the Shusun family.


Gongzhong [Qingfu] employed the chief groom Luo to murder the young marquis Ban in the house of the Zhang family. Chengji [Jiyou] then fled to Chen, and another son of Zhuang, known as duke Min, was raised to the marquisate.



The duke covenated with the marquis of Qi at Luogu, and besought him to restore Jiyou. The marquis consented, and sent to call You from Chen, the duke halting at Lang to wait for him.


In winter, Zhongsun Jiao of Qi came to investigate the difficulties of our condition, and is here mentioned by his clanname in commendation. On his return he said, "If Qingfu be not removed, the troubles of Lu will not have an end." "But how shall he be removed?" asked the duke. "Exciting troubles without ceasing," replied Jiao, "he will destroy himself. You can wait for the issue." The duke said, " May we now take Lu to ourselves?" Jiao answered, "No. Lu still holds fast to the rules of Zhou, and these are a sure foundation for a State. I have heard the saying, that when a State is about ta perish its root must first be destroyed, and then the destruction of the branches and leaves will follow. While Lu does not abandon the rules of Zhou, it will not be possible to move it. Let it be the object of your grace to quiet the troubles of Lu, and be friendly to it. To be friendly with States that observe the rules of propriety; to help those that have in them the elements of solidity and strength; to complete the separation of those that are dividide and disaffected; and to overthrow those that are full of disorder and confusion:---these are the methods by which a prince with the functions of president among the States proceeds."



Before this, the duke's tutor had violently taken away some fields belonging to Bu Yi, the duke not forbidding him. In the autumn, at this time, Gongzhong [Qingfu] employed Bu Yi to murder the duke at the wu side-gate of the palace.


Chengji, immediately on the duke's death, had gone to Zhu, taking with him duke Zhuang's remaining son, who was afterwards duke Xi; and when Gongzhong [Qingfu] fled to Ju, he returned to the State, and raised this son to the marquisate. He afterwards sent bribes to Ju, and requested the delivery of Gongzhong. the people of Ju were sending him back; but when he got to Mi, he sent duke Huan's son, Yu, to beg for his life. The request was refused, and Yu went back, weeping loudly as he went. When Gongzhong heard him, he said, "It is the voice of Xisi [Gongzi Yu]," and hanged himself.


Duke Min was the son of Shu Jiang, a sister of Ai Jiang, on which account the people of Qi had promoted his appointment to be marquis. Gongzhong [Qingfu] had been carrying on a criminal intrigue with Ai Jiang, who wished him to get the State, and she had, with that view, been privy to the death of Min. She had therefore withdrawn to Zhu, but an officer of Qi took her, and put her to death in Yi, and carried her body back with him. Duke Xi requested that it might be given to him, and then buried her.


宗婦 (zong1 fu4)wives of the dafus with the same surname as the ruler
忌 (ji4)to show respect for
贄 (zhi4)ceremonial gift
棗 (zao3)jujube fruit (also called Chinese date)
栗 (li4)chestnut
禽 (qin2)(caught) animal
章 (zhang1)to show, to manifest
物 (wu4)class, sort
別 (bie2)to distinguish
節 (jie2)rule, law
丹 (dan1)to paint with vermilion
楹 (ying2)pillar
桷 (jue2)rafter
夸 (kua1)to boast
酖 (dan1)poisoned wine