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魯莊哀姜

列女傳

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哀姜者,齊侯之女,莊公之夫人也。
Ai Jiang was the daughter of the Marquis of Qi, and the wife of duke Zhuang.

初,哀姜未入時,公數如齊,與哀姜淫。
Earlier, at the time before Ai Jiang had entered Lu, the Duke went to Qi numerous times, to have illicit affairs with Ai Jiang.

既入,與其弟叔姜俱。
When she entered Lu, she did it together with her younger sister, Shu Jiang.

公使大夫宗婦用幣見,大夫夏甫不忌曰:
The Duke ordered the wives of the dafus to greet her with gifts of money. Dafu Xia Fu considered this disrespectful and said:

「婦贄不過棗栗,以致禮也。
"Women's gifts should be limited to dates and chestnuts, their purpose is to accord with the proper rites.

男贄不過玉帛禽鳥,以章物也。
Men's gifts should be limited to jade, silk or meat of animals and birds, their purpose is to express the status of the giver.

今婦贄用幣,是男女無別也。
Now you are making women give money, this means not making a distinction between men and women.

男女之別,國之大節也。無乃不可乎?」
The distinction between men and women is our country's great law. Not having it, would that be acceptable?"

公不聽,又丹其父桓公廟宮之楹,刻其桷,以夸哀姜。
The Duke did not listen, and again painted his father's, Duke Huan's, pillar in the ancestral temple with vermilion, and carved into his rafter boasting about Ai Jiang.

哀姜驕淫,通於二叔公子慶父、公子牙。
Ai Jiang was arrogant and lewd, and sent word to her two uncles, Prince Qingfu and Prince Ya.

哀姜欲立慶父,公薨,子般立,
Ai Jiang wanted to establish Qingfu as successor. When the Duke died, Ziban was crowned.

慶父與哀姜謀,遂殺子般於黨氏,
Qingfu plotted with Ai Jiang, then they killed Ziban at the Zhang family residence.

立叔姜之子,是為閔公。
Then Shu Jiang's son became Duke Min.

閔公既立,慶父與哀姜淫益甚,
When Duke Min was crowned, Qingfu and Ai Jiang (???)

又與慶父謀殺閔公而立慶父,
Again she plotted with Qingfu to kill Duke Min and make Qingfu the new duke.

遂使卜齮襲弒閔公於武闈。
They ordered the diviner Yi Xi to assassinate Duke Min at Wuwei.

將自立,魯人謀之,慶父恐,奔莒,哀姜奔邾。
When he intended to crown himself, the people of Lu plotted against him, and Qingfu became afraid and fled to Ju, and Ai Jiang fled to Zhu.

齊桓公立僖公,聞哀姜與慶父通以危魯,
Duke Huan of Qi crowned duke Xi. He heard that Ai Jiang and Qingfu were talking about harming Lu.

乃召哀姜,酖而殺之,魯遂殺慶父。
He then summoned Ai Jiang and poisoned her with wine. Lu then killed Qingfu.

詩云:「啜其泣矣,何嗟及矣!」此之謂也。
The ode says: "she sobs and weep, but what does lament avail?" This applies here.
Note: from Bernhard Karlgren's translation of 中谷有蓷 (ode 69).

春秋

莊公二十四年

夏,公如齊逆女。
In summer, the duke went to Qi to meet his bride.

秋,公至自齊。
In autumn, the duke arrived from Qi.

八月,丁丑,夫人姜氏入。
In the eight month, his wife, the lady Jiang, entered [the capital].

戊寅,大夫宗婦覿用幣。
On wuyin, the great officers belonging to the ducal House, and their wives, had an interview with her, and presented offerings of silks.

莊公三十二年

秋,七月,癸巳,公子牙卒。
In the autumn, in the seventh month, on guisi, duke Huan's son, Ya, died.

八月,癸亥,公薨于路寢。
In the eight month, on guihai, the duke died in the State-chamber.

冬,十月,己未,子般卒。
In winter, in the tenth month, on jiwei, the duke's son, Ban, died.

公子慶父如齊。
Duke Huan's son, Qingfu, went to Qi.

閔公二年

秋,八月,辛丑,公薨。
In autumn, in the eight month, on xinchou, the duke died.

九月,夫人姜氏孫于邾。
In the ninth month, duke Zhuang's wife, the lady Jiang, withdrew to Zhu.

公子慶父出奔莒。
Duke Huan's son, Qingfu, fled to Ju.

左傳

莊公二十四年

秋,哀姜至,公使宗婦覿用幣,非禮也,御孫曰,男贄,大者玉帛,小者禽鳥,以章物也,女贄,不過榛,栗,棗,脩,以告虔也,今男女同贄,是無別也,男女之別,國之大節也,而由夫人亂之,無乃不可乎。

In autumn, when Ai Jiang arrived, the duke made the wives of the great officers, at their first interview, offer silks and gems;---which was contrary to rule. Yu Sun said, "The offerings of males are, the greatest of them, gems and silks, and the lesser, birds and animals,---the different things illustrating their rank. But the offerings of women, are only nuts, dates and pieces of dried flesh,---to show their respect. Now males and females use the same offerings;---there is no distinction between them. But the distinction between males and females is a grand law of the State, and that it should be confounded by the duchess surely is what should not be."

莊公三十二年

初,公築臺臨黨氏,見孟任,從之,閟,而以夫人言許之,割臂盟公,生子般焉。

At an early time, the duke built a tower near the residence of the Zhang family, from which he got a sight of Meng Ren, and followed her; but she shut the door against him. He then said he would make her his wife, when she consented to his desires, cutting at the same time her arm and with the blood making a covenant with him. She afterwards bore a son to the duke, who was called Ban.

雩,講于梁氏,女公子觀之,圉人犖自牆外與之戲,子般怒,使鞭之,公曰,不如殺之,是不可鞭,犖有力焉,能投蓋于稷門。

On occasion of a sacrifice for rain, the duke was discoursing on the subject at the resdience of the Liang family, while his daughter was looking on at what was taking place. The chief groom Luo was outside the wall, and attempted to make sport with her, which incensed her brother Ban, so that he ordered Luo to be scourged. when the duke heard of it, he said, "You should have had him put to death. He is not a man to be scourged. Luo is possessed of great strength and can throw the cover of a carriage over the south gate."

公疾,問後於叔牙,對曰,慶父材,問於季友,對曰,臣以死奉般,公曰,鄉者牙曰,慶父材,成季使以君命命僖叔,待于鍼巫氏,使鍼季酖之曰,飲此則有後於魯國,不然,死且無後,飲之,歸及逵泉而卒,立叔孫氏。

When the duke was ill, he consulted his half-brother Shuya about who should be his successor, and Ya said, "Qingfu has ability." The duke also asked his full brother Jiyou, who replied that he would support Ban to the death. "A little ago," said the duke, "Ya mentioned the ability of Qingfu." On this Chengji [Jiyou] sent a messenger with the duke's order to command Xishu [Shuya] to wait in the family of the officer Qian Wu, where he made Qian Ji present poison to him, with the message, "Drunk it, and your posterity shall be preserved in the State. If you do not drink it, you shall die, and your posterity shall be made no account of." He drank the poison, returned as far as Kuiquan, and died. His son was made the first of the Shusun family.

冬,十月,己未,共仲使圉人犖,賊子般于黨氏,成季奔陳,立閔公。

Gongzhong [Qingfu] employed the chief groom Luo to murder the young marquis Ban in the house of the Zhang family. Chengji [Jiyou] then fled to Chen, and another son of Zhuang, known as duke Min, was raised to the marquisate.

閔公元年

秋,八月,公及齊侯盟于落姑,請復季友也,齊侯許之,使召諸陳,公次于郎以待之,季子來歸,嘉之也。

The duke covenated with the marquis of Qi at Luogu, and besought him to restore Jiyou. The marquis consented, and sent to call You from Chen, the duke halting at Lang to wait for him.

冬,齊仲孫湫來省難,書曰,仲孫,亦嘉之也,仲孫歸曰,不去慶父,魯難未巳,公曰,若之何而去之,對曰,難不巳,將自斃,君其待之,公曰,魯可取乎,對曰,不可,猶秉周禮,周禮,所以本也,臣聞之,國將亡,本必先顛,而後枝葉從之,魯不棄周禮,未可動也,君其務寧魯難而親之,親有禮,因重固,間攜貳,覆昏亂,霸王之器也。

In winter, Zhongsun Jiao of Qi came to investigate the difficulties of our condition, and is here mentioned by his clanname in commendation. On his return he said, "If Qingfu be not removed, the troubles of Lu will not have an end." "But how shall he be removed?" asked the duke. "Exciting troubles without ceasing," replied Jiao, "he will destroy himself. You can wait for the issue." The duke said, " May we now take Lu to ourselves?" Jiao answered, "No. Lu still holds fast to the rules of Zhou, and these are a sure foundation for a State. I have heard the saying, that when a State is about ta perish its root must first be destroyed, and then the destruction of the branches and leaves will follow. While Lu does not abandon the rules of Zhou, it will not be possible to move it. Let it be the object of your grace to quiet the troubles of Lu, and be friendly to it. To be friendly with States that observe the rules of propriety; to help those that have in them the elements of solidity and strength; to complete the separation of those that are dividide and disaffected; and to overthrow those that are full of disorder and confusion:---these are the methods by which a prince with the functions of president among the States proceeds."

閔公二年

初,公傅奪卜齮田,公不禁,秋,八月,辛丑,共仲使卜齮賊公于武闈。

Before this, the duke's tutor had violently taken away some fields belonging to Bu Yi, the duke not forbidding him. In the autumn, at this time, Gongzhong [Qingfu] employed Bu Yi to murder the duke at the wu side-gate of the palace.

成季以僖公適邾,共仲奔莒,乃入立之,以賂求共仲于莒,莒人歸之,及密,使公子魚請,不許,哭而往,共仲曰,奚斯之聲也,乃縊。

Chengji, immediately on the duke's death, had gone to Zhu, taking with him duke Zhuang's remaining son, who was afterwards duke Xi; and when Gongzhong [Qingfu] fled to Ju, he returned to the State, and raised this son to the marquisate. He afterwards sent bribes to Ju, and requested the delivery of Gongzhong. the people of Ju were sending him back; but when he got to Mi, he sent duke Huan's son, Yu, to beg for his life. The request was refused, and Yu went back, weeping loudly as he went. When Gongzhong heard him, he said, "It is the voice of Xisi [Gongzi Yu]," and hanged himself.

閔公,哀姜之娣,叔姜之子也,故齊人立之,共仲通於哀姜,哀姜欲立之,閔公之死也,哀姜與知之,故孫于邾,齊人取而殺之,于夷以其尸歸,僖公請而葬之。

Duke Min was the son of Shu Jiang, a sister of Ai Jiang, on which account the people of Qi had promoted his appointment to be marquis. Gongzhong [Qingfu] had been carrying on a criminal intrigue with Ai Jiang, who wished him to get the State, and she had, with that view, been privy to the death of Min. She had therefore withdrawn to Zhu, but an officer of Qi took her, and put her to death in Yi, and carried her body back with him. Duke Xi requested that it might be given to him, and then buried her.

Vocabulary

宗婦 (zong1 fu4)wives of the dafus with the same surname as the ruler
忌 (ji4)to show respect for
贄 (zhi4)ceremonial gift
棗 (zao3)jujube fruit (also called Chinese date)
栗 (li4)chestnut
禽 (qin2)(caught) animal
章 (zhang1)to show, to manifest
物 (wu4)class, sort
別 (bie2)to distinguish
節 (jie2)rule, law
丹 (dan1)to paint with vermilion
楹 (ying2)pillar
桷 (jue2)rafter
夸 (kua1)to boast
酖 (dan1)poisoned wine