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宋恭伯姬

列女傳

Scanned original

伯姬者,魯宣公之女,成公之妹也。
Bo Ji was the daughter of Duke Huan of Lu, and the younger sister of Duke Cheng.
伯姬是鲁宣公的女儿,成公的妹妹。

其母曰繆姜,嫁伯姬於宋恭公。
Her mother was called Mu Jiang, and married Bo Ji off to Duke Gong of Song.
伯姬的母亲叫缪姜。她让伯姬嫁给宋恭公。

恭公不親迎,伯姬迫於父母之命而行。
Duke Gong did not welcome her in person, but Bo Ji was compelled to go by the her parents' command.
恭公没有亲自迎伯姬,伯姬是迫于父母之命才去。

既入宋,三月廟見,當行夫婦之道。
When entering Song, the ritual for a new husband and wife requires miaojian after three months.
到了宋国之后,伯姬要行庙见之礼,这是夫妇之道。

伯姬以恭公不親迎,故不肯聽命。
Because Duke Gong's did not bother to welcome her personally, Bo Ji did not agree to this.
伯姬以恭公不亲自迎亲为由,不肯遵从这个礼节。

宋人告魯,魯使大夫季文子於宋,致命於伯姬。
Song informed Lu about this, so Lu sent dafu Ji Wenzi, to deliver instructions to Bo Ji.
宋国派人把这事件告诉鲁国。鲁公派大夫季文子到宋国,命令伯姬遵从这个礼节。

還,復命。公享之,繆姜出於房,再拜曰:
Ji Wenzi returned and reported the completion of his mission. The Duke entertained him, and Mu Jiang came out from her chamber, bowed twice and said:
季文子回到鲁国,完成了任务,并向鲁宣公报告。宣公很高兴,款待了他。缪姜从房子出来,缪姜郑重地向季文子深鞠两躬,说:

「大夫勤勞於遠道,辱送小子,
"Dafu, you worked hard during your long journey, escorting our child,
大夫不辞辛苦,历尽艰辛,远送伯姬,

不忘先君以及後嗣,使下而有知,先君猶有望也。
you did not forget the former ruler and his descendants, and you also took care of them, this devotion is what the former ruler expected from you.
大夫念念不忘先皇和他的后代,并一直非常有责任的照顾先皇的后代们,这也是先皇所期望的。

敢再拜大夫之辱。」
Let me twice bow to you again for your disgrace."
请允许我再次感谢大夫。

伯姬既嫁於恭公十年,恭公卒,伯姬寡。
When Bo Ji had been married to Duke Gong for ten years, Duke Gong died, and Bo Ji became a widow.
伯姬嫁给恭公十年后,恭公去世,伯姬成了寡妇。

至景公時,伯姬嘗遇夜失火,左右曰:「夫人少避火。」
In the time of Duke Jing, one night Bo Ji's house caught fire, and her attendants said: "My Lady, quickly, escape from the fire!"
宋景公那年,伯姬的家里失火,她的仆人说:「夫人赶紧从大火里逃出来!」

伯姬曰:「婦人之義,傅母不至,夜不下堂,待保傅來也。」
Bo Ji said: "It is not proper for a lady to go out at night before her instructor arrives. I will wait for my guardian and my instructor to come."
伯姬说:「作为一种妇人的礼仪,如果傅母不来,我们一整夜都不能出去,我要等傅母来。」

保母至矣,傅母未至也。左右又曰:「夫人少避火。」
Her guardian having arrived, her instructor still had not. Bo Ji's attendants once again said: "My Lady, quickly, escape from the fire!"
她的傅母来到,保姆还不在。仆人又说:「夫人赶紧避火!」

伯姬曰:「婦人之義,傅母不至,夜不可下堂,
Bo Ji said: "It is not proper for a lady to go out at night before her instructor arrives,
伯姬说:「作为一种妇人的礼仪,如果保姆不来,我们一整夜都不能出去,

越義求生,不如守義而死。」遂逮於火而死。
it is better to preserve propriety and die than to go beyond what is proper in order to survive." The fire reached her and she died.
违背道义而求生,不如遵守道义而求死。」火势迅速蔓延至伯姬,伯姬死于大火之中。

春秋

成公九年

Translation by James Legge (The Chinese Classics: The Ch'un Ts'ew with the Tso Chuen, p. 371)

二月,伯姬歸于宋。夏,孫行父如宋致女。
In the second month, duke Xuan's eldest daughter went to her home in Song. in summer, Jisun Hengfu went to Song, to celebrate the completion of the above lady's union with the dke of Song.

左傳

成公九年

夏,季文子如宋致女,復命,公享之,賦韓奕之五章,
In the summer, Ji Wenzi went to Song, to celebrate the completion of the above lady's union with the duke of Song. When Ji Wenzi returned to Lu and reported the execution of his commission, the duke entertained him, and the minister sang the 5th stanza of the Han Yi.

穆姜出于房,再拜曰:
Mu Jiang then came out from her chamber, and bowed twice to him, saying,

「大夫勤辱,不忘先君,以及嗣君,施及未亡人,
"This laborious journey you undertook mindful of our late marquis (侯) and of his son and heir, and of me, his relict:--

先君猶有望也,敢拜大夫之重勤」
this was what he even still would expect from you. Let me thank you for your very toilsome service."

又賦綠衣之卒章而入。
She then sang the last stanza of the Lü Yi and went in.

Vocabulary

繆 (mu4)穆 (in the name of 繆姜)
迫 (po4)to force, to compel
廟見 (miao4 jian4)《古代汉语词典》: “古时婚礼,妇至夫家,若夫之父母已死,则于三月后到庙中参拜,称庙见。”
("ancient marriage custom, when the wife comes to her husband's family, if his parents are dead, then after three months they go to worship the husband's parents")
肯 (ken3)to agree to, to be willing to
復命 (fu4 ming4)to report the completion of a mission
享 (xiang3)to arrange a feast for
再拜 (zai4 bai4) 《古代汉语词典》:“古人表示恭敬的礼节。”
("ancient way of showing respect", described elsewhere as bowing twice, respectfully)
勤勞 (qin2 lao2)to work hard
後嗣 (hou4 si4)descendants
傅 (fu4)tutor, teacher
逮 (dai4)to reach, to arrive

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