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晉獻驪姬

列女傳

Scanned original

驪姬者,驪戎之女,晉獻公之夫人也。
Li Ji was a woman of the Li Rong, and the wife of Duke Xian of Jin.

初,獻公娶於齊,生秦穆夫人及太子申生,
Earlier, Duke Xian had taken a wife from Qi, who gave birth to the future wife of Duke Mu of Qin, and to Shensheng.

又娶二女於戎,生公子重耳、夷吾。
He later married again with two women from the Rong, who gave birth to Chong'er and Yiwu.

獻公伐驪戎,克之,獲驪姬以歸,生奚齊、卓子。
Duke Xian attacked the Li Rong, conquered them, and took Li Ji back with him as his wife. She gave birth to Xiqi and Zhuozi.

驪姬嬖於獻公,齊姜先死,公乃立驪姬以為夫人。
Li Ji became a favorite of Duke Xian. When Qi Jiang died, the duke made Li Ji his main wife.

驪姬欲立奚齊,乃與弟謀曰:
Li Ji wanted to make Xiqi the crown prince, and plotted with her younger sister, saying:

「一朝不朝,其閒用刀,逐太子與二公子而可閒也。」
"(???) only after chasing away the crown prince and the two other princes I can be at ease."

於是驪姬乃說公曰:「曲沃,君之宗邑也;
So Li Ji said to the duke: "Quwo is my lord's ancestral city.

蒲與二屈,君之境也。不可以無主。
Pu and Erqu are my lord's border cities. These can not be without a ruler present.

宗邑無主,則民不畏邊境;無主,則開寇心。
If the ancestral city goes without ruler, the people will not respect our border; without a ruler, this will open the hearts of bandits.

夫寇生其心,民嫚其政,國之患也。
Now, if the hearts of bandits are roused, people will despise their government, to the detriment of the country.

若使太子主曲沃,二公子主蒲與二屈,
If you make the crown prince the ruler of Quwo, and the two other princes the rulers of Pu and Erqu,

則可以威民而懼寇矣。」
then you can make people respectful, and bandits afraid."

遂使太子居曲沃,重耳居蒲,夷吾居二屈。
Thereupon he made the crown prince reside in Quwo, Chong'er reside in Pu and Yuwu reside in Erqu.

驪姬既遠太子,乃夜泣,公問其故,對曰:
When Li Ji had ensured that the crown prince was far away, she sobbed in the night, and the duke asked for her reason. She replied: "

「吾聞申生為人,甚好仁而強,甚寬惠而慈於民,
I heard that Shensheng makes an effort to be excessively kind to people, using his extremely vast kindness to his people.

今謂君惑於我,必亂國,無乃以國民之故,
Now he says your lord has been deluded by me, and that I will certainly cause disorder in the country. I'm afraid that for the sake of the people of the country,

行強於君,君未終命而歿,君其柰何?
he's trying to compell my lord. But you have not yet died, how could you cope with this?

胡不殺我,無以一妾亂百姓。」
Why not kill me? Do not let one concubine create chaos among the common people."

公曰:「惠其民而不惠其父乎?」
The duke said: "He is good to the people, yet he his not good to his own father?

姬曰:「為民與為父異。夫殺君利民,民孰不戴。
Ji said: "Doing something for the people, or for one's father, are two different things. Now, if he's going to kill the ruler to benefit the people, who among the people would not support him?

苟父利而得寵,除亂而眾說,孰不欲焉。
If by not considering his father's benefit in order to obtain favor from the people, he can put an end to disorder and make the masses happy, who would not desire this from him?

雖其愛君,欲不勝也。若紂有良子,而先殺紂,
Although he loves his lord, he desires not to (???). Like Zhou had Liangzi, who in the past killed Zhou,

毋章其惡,鈞死也,毋必假手於武王以廢其祀。
(???) use King Wu as a pretext to discard his sacrifice.

自吾先君武公兼翼,而楚穆弒成。
Among our previous rulers, Duke Wu united with Yi, and Mu of Chu assassinated Cheng.

此皆為民而不顧親,君不早圖,禍且及矣。」
These all acted for the people without considering their relatives. If you do not make plans soon, disaster will soon come."

公懼曰:「柰何而可?」
The duke was afraid and said: "How can I deal with this?"

驪姬曰:「君何不老而授之政。得政而治之,殆將釋君乎?」
Li Ji said: "My lord, how can you hand over control of government to him without being old? When he has power and exercises it, will he harm you, or let you go?"

公曰:「不可,吾將圖之。」由此疑太子。
The duke said: "This is unacceptable. I will consider this." From this point, he mistrusted his crown prince.

驪姬乃使人以公命告太子曰:「君夢見齊姜,亟往祀焉。」
Li Ji then sent a messenger on the duke's behalf to the crown prince, saying: "The lord dreamt about Qi Jiang, hurry to sacrifice to her."

申生祭於曲沃,歸福於絳,公田不在,
Shensheng sacrificed in Quwo, and sent home sacrifical wine and meat to Jiang. The duke was out hunting and absent from the palace,

驪姬受福,乃寘鴆於酒,施毒於脯。
Li Ji received the gifts, then put a poisonous bird in the wine, and applied poison to the meat.

公至,召申生將胙,驪姬曰:「食自外來,不可不試也。」
The duke arrived, and summoned Shensheng's sacrificial meat and wine. Li Ji said: "This food comes from the outside, it would be unwise not to test it."

覆酒於地,地墳,申生恐而出。
He poured some wine onto the ground, which swelled up. Shensheng became afraid, and left.

驪姬與犬,犬死,飲小臣,小臣死之。
Li Ji gave some to a dog, which died. She made a minor official drink of the wine, and the official died.

驪姬乃仰天叩心而泣,見申生哭曰:
Li Ji then looked up at the sky, beat her chest and sobbed. She looked at Shensheng and cried, saying:

「嗟乎!國,子之國,子何遲為君?
"Sigh! The country, your country, how could you wait to become its ruler?

有父恩忍之,況國人乎!弒父以求利,人孰利之?」
(???). To murder your father in order to gain something, who would consider anything gained?

獻公使人謂太子曰:「爾其圖之。」
Duke Xian sent a messenger to the crown prince saying: "You should explain this."

太傅里克曰:「太子入自明可以生,不則不可以生。」
The great tutor Li Ke said: "Crown prince, if you come and explain yourself, then you may live. If not, you can not live."

太子曰:「吾君老矣。若入而自明,則驪姬死,吾君不安。」
The crown prince said: "My lord is old. If I return and explain myself, then Li Ji will die, and my lord will not be at peace."

遂自經於新城廟。公遂殺少傅杜原款。
Then he hanged himself in the temple of the new city. The duke then killed the junior tutor, Du Yuankuan.

使閹楚刺重耳,重耳奔狄。
Then Yan Chu went to assassinate Chong'er, who fled to the Di.

使賈華刺夷吾,夷吾奔梁。
Jia Hua was sent to assassinate Yiwu, who fled to Liang.

盡逐群公子,乃立奚齊。
After all the princes were gone, Xiqi was promoted to crown prince.

獻公卒,奚齊立,里克殺之。
When Duke Xian died, Xiqi became duke, but Li Ke killed him.

卓子立,又殺之。乃戮驪姬,鞭而殺之。
Zhuozi was made duke, but Li Ke killed him, too. Then he executed Li Ji by whipping.

於是秦立夷吾,是為惠公。
Thereupon Qin crowned Yiwu as Duke Hui.

惠公死,子圉立,是為懷公。
When duke Hui died, Ziyu was crowned as Duke Huai.

晉人殺懷公於高梁,立重耳,是為文公。
Men of Jin killed Duke Huai, and crowned Chong'er as Duke Wen.

亂及五世然後定。
The chaos extended five generations before settling down.

詩曰:「婦有長舌,惟厲之階。」又曰:「哲婦傾城。」此之謂也。
The ode says: "A woman with a long tongue, Is [like] a stepping-stone to disorder." It also says: "But a wise woman overthrows the city wall." This applies here.
Note: from James Legge's translation of 瞻卬 (ode 264). More on this can be found in the chapter on Mo Xi.

春秋

僖公九年

冬,晉里克殺其君之子奚齊。
In winter, Li Ke put to death Xiqi, the son of his deceased ruler.

左傳

莊公二十八年

晉獻公娶于賈,無子,烝於齊姜,生秦穆夫人,及太子申生,又娶二女於戎,大戎狐姬生重耳,小戎子生夷吾,晉伐驪戎,驪戎男,女以驪姬歸,生奚齊,其娣生卓子,驪姬嬖,欲立其子,賂外嬖梁五,與東關嬖五,使言於公曰,曲沃,君之宗也,蒲與二屈,君之疆也,不可以無主,宗邑無主,則民不威,疆埸無主,則啟戎心,戎之生心,民慢其政,國之患也,若使大子主曲沃,而重耳夷吾主蒲與屈,則可以威民而懼戎,且旌君伐,使俱曰,狄之廣莫,於晉為都,晉之啟土,不亦宜乎。

Duke Xian of Jin married a daughter of the House of Jia, who had no child. Afterwards he committed incest with his father's concubine Qi Jiang, by whom he had a daughter who became the wife of duke Mu of Qin, and a son Shensheng, whom he, after his father's death, acknowledged as his heir. Subsequently he married two ladies from among the Rong, the one of whom, called Hu Ji of the great Rong, bore Chong'er, and the other, who was of the small Rong, bore Yiwu. When Jin invaded the Li Rong, their chief, a baron, gave him to wife his daughter, Li Ji, who bore a son called Xi Qi, while her younger sister bore him Zhuozi. Li Ji became the favourite with the duke, and wished to get her son declared his successor. In order to do this, she bribed two officers, who were fvourites with him,---Liangwu, of the outer court, and another, Wu from Dongguan, and got them to speak to the marquis to this effect:---"Quwo contains your lordship's ancestral temple; Pu and Erqu are your boundary cities. They should not be without their lords residing in them. If your ancestral city be without its lord, the people will not feel awe,; if the others be without their lords, that will lead the Rong to form encroaching projects. When they do so, the people will despise the government as being remiss;---to the harm of the State. If the heir-apparent be put in charge of Quwo, and Chong'er and Yiwu be put in charge, the one of Pu, and the other of Erqu, this will both awe the people and keep the Rong in fear, and display, moreover, your lordship's effective rule." She made them both say further, "The wide territory of the Di will in this way be a sort of capital of Jin. Is it not right thus to extend the country of the State?"

晉侯說之,夏,使大子居曲沃,重耳居蒲城,夷吾居屈,群公子皆鄙,唯二姬之子在絳,二五卒與驪姬譖群公子,而立奚齊,晉人謂之二耦。

The marquis was pleased with these suggestions, and in the summer he sent his eldest son to reside in Quwo, Chong'er to reside in the city of Pu, and Yuwu in Qu. Thus all his other sons were sent away to the borders, and only the sons of Li Ji and her sister were left in Jiang. The end was that the two Wu and Li Ji slandered the others, and got Xiqi appointed heir to the State. The people of Jin called the two Wu the pair of ploughers.

僖公四年

初,晉獻公欲以驪姬為夫人,卜之不吉,筮之吉,公曰,從筮,卜人曰,筮短龜長,不如從長,且其繇曰:

Before this, the duke Xian of Jin had wished to make Li Ji his wife. The tortoise-shell indicated that the thing would be unlucky, but the milfoil pronounced it lucky. The duke said, "I will follow the milfoil." The diviner by the tortoise-shell said, "The milfoil is reckoned inferior in its indications to the tortoise-hsell. You had better follow the latter. And moreover, the oracle was:---

專之渝,攘公之羭,一薰一蕕,十年尚猶有臭。

The change made by inordinate devotion
Steals away the good qualities of the duke.
There is a fragrant herb, and a noisome one;
And ten years hence the noisomeness will continue.

必不可,弗聽,立之,生奚齊,其娣生卓子。

Do not as you propose." The duke would not listen to this advice, and declared Li Ji his wife. She gave birth to Xiqi, and her sister bore Zhuozi.

及將立奚齊,既與中大夫成謀,姬謂大子曰,君夢齊姜,必速祭之,大子祭于曲沃,歸胙于公,公田,姬寘諸宮,六日,公至,毒而獻之,公祭之地,地墳,與犬,犬斃,與小臣,小臣亦斃,姬泣曰,賊由大子,大子奔新城,公殺其傅杜原款,或謂大子,子辭,君必辯焉,大子曰,君非姬氏,居不安,食不飽,我辭,姬必有罪,君老矣,吾又不樂,曰,子其行乎,大子曰,君實不察其罪,被此名也以出,人誰納我,十二月,戊申,縊于新城。

When the duke was about to declare Xiqi his heir, having determined on his plans with the great officers about the court, [Li] Ji said to his eldest son, "The duke has been dreaming about Qi Jiang; you must soon sacrifice to her." The young prince sacrificed to his mother in Quwo, and sent some of the sacrifical flesh and spirits to the duke, who was hunting when they came. [Li] Ji kept them in the palace six days, and when the duke arrived, she poisoned them and presented them to him. The duke poured some of the spirits on the ground, which was agitated by them. He gave some of the flesh to a dog, which died; and some of the spirits to one of the attendants, who also died. [Li] Ji wept and said, "This is your eldest son's attempt to murder you." The son fled to the new city; but the duke put to death his tutor, Du Yuankuan. Some one said to the son, "Explain the matter. The duke is sure to discriminate." The son, however, said, "Without the lady Ji, my father cannot enjoy his rest or his food. If I explain the matter, the guilt will be fixed on her. The duke is getting old, and I will have taken his joy from him." The friend said, "Had you not better go away then?" The duke," replied the prince, "will not examine into who is the guilty party; and if I, with the name of such a crime, go away from the State, who will receive me?" In the 12th month, on wushen, he strangled himself in the new city.

姬遂譖二公子曰,皆知之,重耳奔蒲,夷吾奔屈。

Ji then slandered the duke's two other sons, saying that they were both privy to their brother's attempt, on which Chong'er fled to Pu, and Yiwu fled to Qu.

僖公九年

晉獻公卒,里克平鄭,欲納文公,故以三公子之徒作亂,初,獻公使荀息傅奚齊,公疾,召之曰,以是藐諸孤,辱在大夫,其若之何,稽首而對曰,臣竭其股肱之力,加之以忠貞,其濟,君之靈也,不濟,則以死繼之,公曰,何謂忠貞,對曰,公家之利,知無不為,忠也,送往事居,耦俱無猜,貞也。

On the death of duke Xian of Jin, Li Ke and Ping Zheng wished to raise Chong'er, who was afterwards duke Wen, to the marquisate, and therefore raised an insurrection with his partizans, and those of his brothers, Shensheng and Yiwu. Years before this, duke Xian had appointed Xun Xi to superintend the training of Xiqi; and when he was ill, he called Xi to him, and said, "I ventured to lay on you the charge of this child; how will you now do in reference to him?" Xi bowed his head to the ground, and replied, "I will put forth all my strength and resources on his behalf, doing so with loyalty and sincere devotion. If I succeed, it will be owing to your lordshi's influence; if I do not succeed, my death shall follow my endeavours." "What do you mean by loyalty ad sincere devotion?" asked the duke. "Doing to the extent of my knowledge whatever will be advantageous to your House is loyalty. Performing the duties to you, the departed, and serving him, the living, so that neither of ou would have any doubts about me, is sincere devotion."

及里克將殺奚齊,先告荀息曰,三怨將作,秦晉輔之,子將何如,荀息曰,將死之,里克曰,無益也,荀叔曰,吾與先君言矣,不可以貳,能欲復言,而愛身乎,雖無益也。將焉辟之,且人之欲善,誰不如我,我欲無貳,而能謂人已乎。

When Li Ke was fully purposed to kill Xiqi, he first informed Xun Xi, saying, "The friends of Chong'er and his brothers, all full of resentment, are about to rise; Qin and Jin wil assist them:---what can you do in such a case?" "I will die with Xiqi," replied Xi. "That will be of no use," urged the other. Xun Xi said, "I told our departed marquis so, and I must not say another thing now. I am able and willing to make good my words, and do you think I will grudge my life to do so? Although it may be of no use, how can I do otherwise? And in their wish to show the same virtue for their side, who is not like me? Do I wish to be entirely faithful and one for my protege, and can I say that others should refrain from being so for theirs?

冬,十月,里克殺奚齊于次,書曰,殺其君之子,未葬也,荀息將死之,人曰,不如立 卓子而輔之,荀息立公子卓以葬。

In the 10th month, Li Ke killed Xiqi in his palace by his father's coffin. Xun Xi was about to die at the same time, but some one said to him, "You had better raise Zhuozi to his brother's place, and give your help to him." Xi did so, and directed the new marquis in the burias of duke Xian.

十一月,里克殺公子卓于朝,荀息死之,君子曰,詩所謂白圭之玷,尚可磨也,斯言之玷,不可為也,荀息有焉。

In the 11th month, Li Ke slew Zhuo in the court, and Xun Xi died with him. The superior man may say that in Xun Xi we have what is declared in the ode

A flaw in a white gem
May be ground away;
But for a flaw in speech
Nothing can be done

齊侯以諸侯之師伐晉,及高梁而還,討晉亂也,令不及魯,故不書。

The marquis of Qi, with the armies ofthe princes, invaded Jin, and returned, after advancing as far as Gaoliang. The expedition was to punish and put down the disorders of the State. The order about it did not reach Lu, and so no record of it was made.

晉郤芮使夷吾重賂秦以求入,曰,人實有國,我何愛焉,入而能民,土於何有,從之,齊隰朋帥師會秦師,納晉惠公。

Xi Rui made Yiwu offer heavy bribes to Qin, to obtain its help in entering Jin, saying to him, "The State is really in the possession of others; you need grudge nothing. If you enter and can get the people, you will have no difficulty about the territory." Yiwu followed his counsel. Xi Peng of Qi led a force and joined the army of Qin; and they placed Yiwu or duke Hui in duke Xian's place.

秦伯謂郤芮曰,公子誰恃,對曰,臣聞亡人無黨,有黨必有讎,夷吾弱不好弄,能鬥不過,長亦不改,不識其他,公謂公孫枝曰,夷吾其定乎,對曰,臣聞之,唯則定國,詩曰

The earl of Qin said to Xi Rui, "Whom has the duke's son to rely on in Jin?" Rui replied, "I have heard the saying that a figitive should have no partizans; for if he have partizans, he is sure to have enemies also. When Yuwu was young, he was not fond of play; he could show fight, but in moderation. When he grew up, there was no change in these traits. Anything else about him I do not know." The earl then said to Gongsun Zhi, "Will Yuwu settle the State?" Zhi replied, "I have heard that only the pattern man can settle a State. In the Shi it is said of king Wen

不識不知,順帝之則,文王之謂也,又曰,不僭不賊,鮮不為則,無好無惡,

Without the consciousnes of effort,
You accord with the pattern of God

It is also said

Committing no excess, inflicting no injury;
There are few who will not take you as their model.

不忌不克之謂也,今其言多忌克,難哉,公曰,忌則多怨,又焉能克,是吾利也。

This is spoken of him who loves not nor hates, who envies not nor is ambitious;---it will be hard for him to settle the State!" The earl said, "Being envious, he will have many to resent his conduct; how can he succeed in this ambition? But this will be our gain."

僖公十年

夏,四月,周公忌父,王子黨,會齊隰朋,立晉侯,晉侯殺里克以說,將殺里克,公使謂之曰,微子則不及此,雖然,子弒二君與一大夫,為子君者,不亦難乎,對曰,不有廢也,君何以興,欲加之罪,其無辭乎,臣聞命矣,伏劍而死,於是平鄭聘于秦,且謝緩賂,故不及。

In summer, in the 4th month, Jifu, duke of Zhou, and Dang, son of king Xi (?), joined Xi Peng of Qi in securing the establishment of the marquis of Jin, who put to death Li Ke to clear himself of any complicity with him in the murders which he had committed. When he was about to put him to death, he sent a message to him, saying, "But for you, I should not have attained to my present position; but considering that you murdered twomarquises and one great officer, is it not a difficult thing to be your ruler?" Ke replied, "If others had not been removed, how could you have found room to rise? But if you wish to make out a man's guilt, there is no difficulty in finding ground to do so. I have heard your command." With thishe cut his own throat, and died. At this time Ping Zheng was absent on a visit of friendly inquiries in Qin, and to entreat the earl to grant some delay in the payment of the bribes promised to him, so that he escaped for the present.

晉侯改葬共大子,秋,狐突適下國,遇大子,大子使登僕,而告之曰,夷吾無禮,余得請於帝矣,將以晉畀秦,秦將祀余,對曰,臣聞之,神不歆非類,民不祀非族,君祀無乃殄乎,且民何罪,失刑乏祀,君其圖之,君曰,諾,吾將復請,七日,新城西偏,將有巫者而見我焉,許之,遂不見,及期而往,告之曰,帝許我罰有罪矣,敝於韓。

The marquis of Jin took up the body of his brother Gong [Shensheng], and had it re-interred. In the autumn, Hu Tu went to the lower capital in connection with this, when he met the former young prince, who hame him get up and take his reins for him, as he had been accustomed to do, and then said to him, "Yiwu has violated all propriety. I have presented a request to God and obtained it:---I am going to give Jin to Qin, which will maintain the sacrifices to me." Tu replied, "I have heard that the Spirits of the dead do not enjoy the sacrifices of those who are not of their kindred, and that people only sacrifice to those who were of the same ancestry as themselves. Will not the sacrifices to you be thus virtually no sacrifices? And what crimes attach to the people of Jin? Let me ask you to consider well how what you have done will lead to the wrong punishment of them and the cessation of the sacrifices to yourself." "Yes," said the other, "I will make another request to God. In 7 days, at the western side of the new city there will be a wizard, through whom you shall have an interview with me." Tu agreed to this, and the prince disappeared. When the time was come, the officer went to the west side of the city, and received this message:---"God has granted that I punish only the criminal, who shall be defeated in Han."

平鄭之如秦也,言於秦伯曰,呂甥,郤稱,冀芮,實為不從,若重問以召之,臣出晉君,君納重耳,蔑不濟矣。

When Ping Zheng went to Qin, he said to the earl, "They were Lü Sheng, Xi Cheng, and Ji Rui, who would not agree to our marquis's fulfilling his promises to you. If you will call them to you by urgently requesting their presence, I will then expel the marquis. Your lordship can then restore Chong'er to Jin, and everything will be crowned with success.

冬,秦伯使泠至報問,且召三子,郤芮曰,幣重而言甘,誘我也,遂殺平鄭,祁舉,及七輿大夫,左行共華,右行賈華,叔堅,騅歂,纍虎,特宮,山祁,皆里平之黨也平豹奔秦,言於秦伯曰,晉侯背大主而忌小怨,民弗與也,伐之必出,公曰,失眾,焉能殺,違禍,誰能出君。

In winter, the earl of Jin sent Ling Zhi to Jin in return for the missions of Ping Zheng, and to ask that the three offices mentioned by Zheng might come to him. Xi Rui said: "The greatness of his gifts and the sweetness of his words are intended to decoy us." Then they put to death Ping Zheng, Qi Ju, and the seven great officers of the chariots,---Gong Hua of the left column, Jia Hua of the right column, Shu Jian, Zhui Chuan, Lei Hu, Te Gong, and Shan Qi; all partizans of Li and Ping. Ping Bao fled to Qin, and said to the earl, "The marquis of Jin is false to you, great lord, and envious on small grounds of his own officers;---the people do not adhere to him. Attack him, and he is sure to be driven from the State." The earl said, "How can he, who has lost the masses, deal death in such a way? But you have onl yescaped the calamity; who can expel your ruler?"

Vocabulary

閒 (xian2)
寇 (kou4)bandit
嫚 (man4)to despise
威 (wei1)to fear, to respect
寬 (kuan1)vast, wide
無乃 (wu2 nai3)I'm afraid that ...
歿 (mo4)to die
柰 (nai4)to cope, to deal with
戴 (dai4)to support
苟 (gou3)if
勝 (sheng4)to surpass, to beat
勝 (sheng1)equal to, capable of
顧 (gu4)to consider
授 (shou4)to hand over
亟 (ji2)hurry
福 (fu2)wine and meat used for sacrifice
寘 (zhi4)to place, to put
鴆 (zhen4)poisonous bird
施 (shi1)to apply, to put
脯 (fu3)dried meat
胙 (zuo4)sacrificial meat and wine
覆 (fu4)to tip over
墳 (fen2)to swell up
叩心 (kou4 xin1)to beat one's chest
遲 (chi2)slow
遲 (zhi4)to wait
況 (kuang4)moreover
況 (huang4)to give, be equal to
戮 (lu4)to punish by death
鞭 (bian1)to whip