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衛二亂女

列女傳

Scanned original

Translation at the University of Virginia

衛二亂女者,南子及衛伯姬也。
The two reckless women of Wei, were Nan Zi and Boji of Wei.

南子者,宋女衛靈公之夫人,
Nan Zi was a woman of Song, and the wife of Duke Ling.

通於宋子朝,太子蒯聵知而惡之,
She had an affair with Zi Zhao of Song. Crown prince Kuaikui heard of this and hated them for it.

南子讒太子於靈公曰:「太子欲殺我。」
Nan Zi slandered the crown prince to Duke Ling: "The crown prince wants to kill me."

靈公大怒蒯聵,蒯聵奔宋。
Duke Ling was very angry at Kuaikui, who fled to Song.

靈公薨,蒯聵之子輒立,是為出公。
Duke Ling died, and the son of Kuaikui, Zi Zhe was enthroned as Duke Chu.

衛伯姬者,蒯聵之姊也,孔文子之妻,孔悝之母也。
Boji of Wei was the elder sister of Kuaikui, the wife of Kong Wenzi and the mother of Kong Kui.

悝相出公。文子卒,姬與孔氏之豎渾良夫淫。
Kui was a minister to Duke Chu. When Wenzi died, [Bo] Ji had an affair with the Kong family's attendant, Hun Liangfu.

姬使良夫於蒯聵,蒯聵曰:「子苟能內我於國,報子以乘軒,免子三死。」
Ji sent Liangfu to Kuaikui, who said: "If you enable me to enter into the country, I will reward you by making you a dafu, and will let you escape death three times."

與盟,許以姬為良夫妻。
They swore an oath, and he accepted to make Ji Liangfu's wife.

良夫喜,以告姬,姬大悅,良夫乃與蒯聵入舍孔氏之圃。
Liangfu was happy, and announced this to Ji, who was overjoyed. Liangfu and Kuaikui then stayed at the Kong family's garden.

昏時二人蒙衣而乘,遂入至姬所。
In the evening the two men drove, covered by clothes, into the residence of Ji.

已食,姬杖戈先太子與五介冑之士,迫其子悝於廁,強盟之。
When they had finished eating, Ji, wielding a spear, led five men in armor and helmets, forcing her son Kui out from the toilet and into an oath.

出公奔魯,子路死之,蒯聵遂立,是為莊公。
Duke Chu fled to Lu, and Zilu died for him. Kuaikui then was enthroned as Duke Zhuang.

殺夫人南子,又殺渾良夫。
He killed lady Nanzi, and also killed Hun Liangfu.

莊公以戎州之亂,又出奔,四年而出公復入。
Duke Zhuang also escaped due to a rebellion in Rongzhou, and after four years Duke Chu returned.

將入,大夫殺孔悝之母而迎公。
When he was about to return, the dafu killed Kong Kui's mother, and welcomed the duke back.

二女亂五世,至悼公而後定。
Two women caused five generations of disorder, which did not subside until the time of Duke Dao.

詩云:「相鼠有皮,人而無儀。人而無儀,不死何為?」此之謂也。
The ode says: "Look at the rat, it has its skin; a man without manners --- a man without manners, why does he not die?" This applies here.
Note: from Bernhard Karlgren's translation of 相鼠 (ode 52). The full translation can be found below.

詩經

相鼠

相鼠有皮、人而無儀。
人而無儀、不死何為。

Look at the rat, it has its skin; a man without manners
a man without manners, why does he not die?

相鼠有齒、人而無止。
人而無止、不死何俟。

Look at the rat, it has tis teeth; a man without demeanour
a man without demeanour, why does he tarry to die?

相鼠有體、人而無禮。
人而無禮、胡不遄死。

Look at the rat, it has its limbs; a man without decorum
a man without decorum, why does he not quickly die?

左傳

定公十四年

衛侯為夫人南子召宋朝,會于洮,大子蒯聵獻盂于齊,過宋野,野人歌之曰,既定爾婁豬,盍歸吾艾豭,大子羞之,謂戲陽速曰,從我而朝少君,少君見我,我顧乃殺之,速曰諾,乃朝夫人,夫人見大子,大子三顧,速不進,夫人見其色,啼而走曰,蒯聵將殺余,公執其手以登臺,大子奔宋,盡逐其黨,故公孟彄出奔鄭,自鄭奔齊。

The marquis of Wei, to gratify his wife Nan Zi, had invited Zhao of Song (her brother) to his court. At the meeting at Tao, Kuaikui, eldest son of the marquis, had presented [the city of] Yu to Qi; and as he was [returning] through the country of Song, the country-people sang to him,

Since you have allayed the heat of your sow,
Why not send back our old boar?

The prince was ashamed, and said to Su of Xiyang, "Follow me, when I visit the duchess; and when she sees me, and I look round, do you kill her." Su agreed to this. The prince accordingly went to the court of the marchioness, who saw him, but though he looked round thrice, Su did not advance. The marchioness observed his countenance, burst into tears and ran off, crying, "The prince is going to kill me." The marquis took her by the hand, and went with her into a tower. The prince fled to Song, and all belonging to his party were driven out of the State. It was in consequence of this that Gongmeng Kou fled to Zheng, and from Zheng to Qi.

大子告人曰,戲陽速禍余,戲陽速告人曰,大子則禍余,大子無道,使余殺其母,余不許,將戕於余,若殺夫人,將以余說,余是故許而弗為,以紓余死,諺曰,民保於信,吾以信義也。

The prince said to people that Su of Xiyang had been the occasion of his calamity, but Su told people that the prince had brought calamity on him. "Contrary to all principle," he said, "the prince wanted me to kill his mother, and said that if I did not consent he would kill me. If I had killed the marchioness, he would have thrown the blame on me. I agreed to do it therefore, but did not do it, wishing to defer my death. The common saying is that people preserve themselves by good faith. I hold that the good faith must be in regard to what is righteous."

哀公十一年

冬,衛大叔疾出奔宋,初疾娶于宋子朝,其娣嬖,子朝出,孔文子使疾出其妻而妻之,疾使侍人誘其初妻之娣,寘於犁,而為之一宮,如二妻,文子怒,欲攻之,仲尼止之,遂奪其妻,或淫于外州,外州人奪之軒以獻,恥是二者,故出,衛人立遺,使室孔姞。

In winter Taishu Ji of Wei fled from that State to Song. Before this, Ji had married a daughter of Zizhao, but one of her cousins was his favourite. But when Zizhao left the State, Kong Wenzi made Ji put away his wife, and marry a daughter of his own. Ji, however, made one of his attendants induce the cousin of Ji's former wife to come to him, and placed her in Li, where he built a palace for her, so that he had, as it were, two wives. Wenzi was angry, and wanted to attack him, but Confucius stopped him from ding this. However, he took his wife away. Ji having an intrigue with some lady in Waizhou, the people of that place took away from his carriage by force, and presented it [to the marquis]. Disgraced by these two things he left the State. In Wei, they appointed Yi in his place, and made him take Kong Ji (Wenzi's daughter) as his wife.

哀公十五年

衛孔圉取大子蒯聵之姊,生悝,孔氏之豎渾良夫,長而美,孔文子卒,通於內,大子在戚,孔姬使之焉,大子與之言曰,苟使我入獲國,服冕乘軒,三死無與,與之盟,為請於伯姬。

Kong Yu of Wei married an elder sister of Kuaikui, the eldest son of the marquis, by whom he had a son, Kui. His attendant, Hun Liangfu, was tall and handsome, and after the death of Wenzi (Yu) had an intrigue with his mistress. When her brother was in Qi, she sent this Liangfu to him, and the prince then said to him, "If you can bring it about that I enter the capital and get the State, you shall have the cap and the carriage of a great officer, and 3 capital offences shall be forgiven you." They covenated together, and the attendant made request for the other to Boji.

閏月,良夫與大子入,舍於孔氏之外圃,昏,二人蒙衣而乘,寺人羅御,如孔氏,孔氏之老欒寧問之,稱姻妾以告,遂入,適伯姬氏,既食,孔伯姬杖戈而先,大子與五人介,輿豭從之,迫孔悝於廁強盟之,遂劫以登臺,欒寧將飲酒,炙未熟,聞亂,使告季子。

In the intercalary month, Liangfu and the prince entered the capital, and stopped in an outer orchard of the Kong family. At night, disguised as women, they were driven by a eunuch to the house. The steward Luan Ning asked who they were, and admitted them on being told that they were ladies related to the family. They then went to the apartments of Boji; and, when they had eaten, that lady went before, carrying a spear, and followed by the prince and 5 men-at-arms, and [two men carrying] a pig. They found Kong Kui in the privy, and there forced him to make a covenant with the prince, after which they violently carried him up into a tower. Luan Ning was making ready to drink; but before the meat was fully roasted, he heard of the revolution which was being made, and sent information of it to Jizi.

召獲駕乘車,行爵食炙,奉衛侯輒來奔,季子將入,遇子羔將出,曰,門已閉矣,季子曰,吾姑至焉,子羔曰,弗及,不踐其難,季子曰,食焉,不辟其難,子羔遂出,子路入,及門,公孫敢門焉,曰,無入為也,季子曰,是公孫也,求利焉而逃其難,由,不然,利其祿,必救其患。

Shao Huo had the horses put to a carriage, sent the cup round, partook of roast meat, and then carried off Zhe, the marquis f Wei, with him to Lu for refuge. Jizi was going to enter the city, when he met Zigao about to leave it, who said to him, "The gate is shut." "But I wish to try to go there," replied Jizi. "It was not your doing," said Zigao; "you need not share in the chief's misfortunes." "I have eaten his pay," rejoined the other, "and I will not try to escape from his difficulties." Zigao then quitted the city, and Zilu entered it. When he got to the gate of the Kong family, Gongsun Gan was keeping it, and told him that he could not enter. Jizi said, "You are a grandson of a former duke. You seek what gain you can get, and shrink from encountering the difficulties of the State. I am not such an one. Having got the benefit of the pay of the State, I will try to save it in its difficulties."

有使者出,乃入,曰大子焉用孔悝,雖殺之,必或繼之,且曰,大子無勇,若燔臺半,必舍孔叔大。子聞之懼,下石乞,盂黶敵子路,以戈擊之,斷纓,子路曰,君子死,冠不免,結纓而死。

Just then a messenger came out at the gate, and Zilu entered. "Of what good," said he, "is it for the prince to deal thus with Kong Kui? Though you put him to death, there will be some one to continue." He also said, "The prince has no courage. If we burn half the tower, he is sure to let Kong Shu go." When the prince heard this, he was afraid, and sent down Shi Qi and Yu Yan to resist Zilu, whom they struck with their spears, cutting also the strings of his cap. "The superior man," said he, "does not let his cap fall to the ground when he dies;" and with this he tied the strings again and died.

孔子聞衛亂,曰,柴也,其來由也死矣,孔悝立莊公,莊公害故政,欲盡去之,先謂司徒瞞成曰,寡人離病於外久矣,子請亦嘗之,歸告褚師比,欲與之伐公,不果。

When Confucius heard of the disorder in Wei, he said, "Chai will come; but You will die." Kong Kui then raised duke Zhuang (Kuaikui) to the marquisate. He did what harm he could to the old ministers, and wanted to remove them all. He began by saying to Man Cheng, the minister of Instruction, "I have had long experience of distress abroad. Do you now make atrial of it." Cheng retired, and communicated this to Bi, superintendent of the market, and wished with him to attack the duke. But the scheme did not take effect.

Vocabulary

讒 (chan2)to slander
豎 (shu4)attendant
乘軒 (cheng2 xuan1)to ride in the carriage of a dafu, used to indicate someone being given an official post
免 (mian3)to make someone avoid
舍 (she4)to rest, to stop at
圃 (pu3)vegetable garden
昏 (hun1)evening, darkness
杖 (zhang4)to wield
介 (jie4)armor
冑 (zhou4)helmet
廁 (ce4)latrine