Mu Jiang was a daughter of the marquis of Qi, the wife of Duke Xuan of Lu, and the mother of Duke Cheng.
She was intelligent but stirred up trouble, therefore her posthumous title is Mu (majestic).
Earlier, when Duke Cheng was young, Mu Jiang talked to Shusun Xuanbo, who was named Qiaoru.
Qiaoru and Mu Jiang plotted to expel Ji and Meng, and take power in the state of Lu.
Jin and Chu fought at Yanling, and the duke went to support Jin.
When he was about to leave, Jiang told the duke to make sure to pursue Li and Meng, since they were disloyal to their ruler.
The duke declined, due to troubles with Jin, and requested that he would be able to heed her command after his return.
Then they bribed an officer of Jin, to order the capture and detention of Lisun Hangfu.
The promised to kill Zhongsun Mie, and make the knights of Lu into minor officials of Jin.
The people of Lu did not follow Qiaoru, when they found out about this they chased him out, and Qiaoru fled to Qi. Lu then exiled Mu Jiang to the eastern palace.
When beginning her journey, Mu Jiang ordered a milfoil divination performed. The result was the sixth of the gen trigram.
Note: in the following discussion on the Zhou Yi, I am using Legge's translation, since this entire dialogue is taken directly from the Zuo Zhuan.
The diviner said: "This is what remains when gen becomes sui. Sui is the symbol of getting out, my lady will certainly be able to leave soon."
Jiang said: "No. Of this the Zhou Yi says: 'Sui indicates being great, penetrating, beneficial, firmly correct, without blame.'
Now that greatness is the lofty distinction of the person; that penetration is the assemblage of excellences;
that beneficialness is the harmony of all righteousness; that firm correctness is the stem of all affairs.
But these things must not be in semblance merely. It is only thus that sui could bring the assurance of blamelessness.
Now I, a woman, and associated with disorder, am here in the place of inferior rank.
Chargeable moreover with a want of virtue, greatness cannot be predicated of me.
Not having contributed to the quiet of the State, penetration cannot be predicated of me.
Having brought harm to myself by my doings, beneficialness cannot be predicated of me.
Having left my proper place for a bad intrigue, firm correctness cannot be predicated of me.
To one who has those four virtues of the diagram sui belongs;---what have I to do with it, to whom none of them belongs?
Having chosen evil, how can I be without blame? I shall die here; I shall never get out of this."
She died at the eastern palace. The superior man may say: "Pitiable is Mu Jiang!
Although she was gifted with intelligence, in the end she could not cover her evil and disorderly misdeeds.
The ode says: "That a gentleman takes pleasure can still be excused; but that a girl takes pleasure, cannot be excused." This applies here.
Note: from Bernhard Karlgren's translation of 氓 (ode 58).
In the fifth month, on xinyou, duke Xuan's wife, Jiang, died.
In autumn, in the eight month, on guiwei, we buried our duchess Mu Jiang.
Note: this entry only briefly mentions Mu Jiang, but I it's a horrifying story, so I include it here.
The mother of Shengbo had been without betrothal; and Mu Jiang said, "I will not acknowledge a concubine as my sister-in-law." After the birth of Shengbo, his father sent away the mother, who was afterwards married to Guan Yuxi of Qi. She bore him two children, and was then left a widow, when she came back with the children to Shengbo. He got his half-brother made a great officer, and married his half-sister to Shi Xiaoshu. When Xi Chou came on his friendly mission, he applied for a wife to Shengbo, who took this half-sister from Shi Xiaoshu, and gave her to him. She said, "Ever birds and beasts do not consent to lose their mates; what do you propose to do?" He said, "I am not able to die for you." On this she went [to Jin], where she bore two children to Xi. After his death, they sent her back from Jin to Shi, who met her at the He [Yellow river], and drowned in it her two children. She was angry, and said to him, "You could not protect me when I was your wife, and let me go away from you, and now you are not able to cherish another man's orphans and have killed them;---what death do you expect to die?" She then swore that she would not live again with him.
On the day of the battle, Guo Zuo and Gao Wujiu of Qi reached the army; the marquis of Wei commenced his march from his capital; and the duke proceeded from Huaitui. Xuanbo had an intrigue with Mu Jiang, and wanted to make away with Ji and Meng and appropriate their property. When the duke was commencing his march, Mu Jiang escorted him, and urged him to drive out those two ministers; but he represented to her his difficulties with Jin, and begged till his return, when he would hear her commands. She was angry; and the duke's two half brothers Yan and Chu hurrying past, she pointed to them, and said, "If you refuse, either of these may be our ruler." The duke waited at Huaitiu, renewing his orders for a careful watch to be maintained in the palace, and appointed officers to guard. After this he marched, but the delay made him too late. He had appointed Meng Xianzi to keep guard at the palace.
The meeting in autumn at Shasui was to take measures for the invasion of Zheng. Xuanbo sent information to Xi Chou that the duke had waited in Huaitui, till he should see which side conquered. Xi Chou commanded the new army, and was president of the ducal relatives, with the management of the States of the east. He took bribes from Xuanbo, and accused the duke to the marquis of Jin, who consequently refused to see him.
Mu Jiang died in the eastern palace. When you first went into it, she consulted the milfoil, and got the second line of the hexagram gen. The diviner said, "This is what remains when gen becomes sui. Sui is the symbol of getting out; your ladyship will soon get out from this." She replied, "No. Of this diagram it is said in the Zhou Yi, 'Sui indicates being great, penetrating, beneficial, firmly correct, without blame.' Now that greatness is the lofty distinction of the person; that penetration is the assemblage of excellences; that beneficialness is the harmony of all righteousness; that firm correctness is the stem of all affairs. The person who is entirely virtuous is sufficient to take the presidency of others; admirable virtue is sufficient to secure an agreement with all propriety. Beneficialness to things is sufficient to effect a harmony of all righteousness. Firm correctness is sufficient to manage all affairs. But these things must not be in semblance merely. It is only thus that sui could bring the assurance of blamelessness. Now I, a woman, and associated with disorder, am here in the place of inferior rank. Chargeable moreover with a want of virtue, greatness cannot be predicated of me. Not having contributed to the quiet of the State, penetration cannot be predicated of me. Having brought harm to myself by my doings, beneficialness cannot be predicated of me. Having left my proper place for a bad intrigue, firm correctness cannot be predicated of me. To one who has those four virtues of the diagram sui belongs;---what have I to do with it, to whom none of them belongs? Having chosen evil, how can I be without blame? I shall die here; I shall never get out of this."
|謚 (shi4)||to give posthumous title|
|擅 (shan4)||to rule personally|
|貨 (huo4)||to bribe|
|止 (zhi3)||to detain|
|許 (xu3)||to promise|
|內臣 (nei4 chen2)||minor officials|
|擯 (bin4)||to expel|
|質 (zhi4)||natural qualities|
|掩 (yan3)||to cover|