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魯桓文姜

列女傳

Scanned original

文姜者,齊侯之女,魯桓公之夫人也。
Wen Jiang was the daughter of the Marquis of Qi, and the wife of Duke Huan of Lu.

內亂其兄齊襄公。
Her heart was in disorder regarding her elder brother, Duke Xiang of Qi.

桓公將伐鄭納厲公,
Duke Huan was going to attack Zheng in order to capture Duke Li.

既行,與夫人俱將如齊也,
When it was time to go, the Duke intended to travel to Qi together with his wife.

申繻曰:「不可。女有家,男有室,
Shen Xu said: "You can not. A woman has her husband's house, a man has his wife's chamber,

無相瀆也,謂之有禮,易此必敗。
to respect the difference is called proper, change this and you will surely lose.

且禮婦人無大故則不歸。」
Moreover, unless a wife's parents have died, she should not return to her home."

桓公不聽,遂與如齊。
Duke Huan did not listen, and then went with his wife to Qi.

文姜與襄公通,桓公怒,禁之不止。
Wen Jiang committed adultery with Duke Xiang, which made Duke Huan furious. He forbade her to continue, but she did not stop.

文姜以告襄公,襄公享桓公酒,醉之,
Wen Jiang informed Duke Xiang, who treated Duke Huan to wine and got him drunk.

使公子彭生抱而乘之,因拉其脅而殺之,遂死於車。
He made Prince Peng Sheng carry the duke onto his horse, to kill him by breaking his ribs. The duke then died in his carriage.

魯人求彭生以除恥,齊人殺彭生。
Lu requested Peng Sheng, in order to eliminate the shame of the deed. Qi killed Peng Sheng.

詩曰:「亂匪降自天,生自婦人。」此之謂也。
The ode says: "Disorder does not come down from heaven; It is produced by the woman." This applies here.
Note: from James Legge's translation of 瞻卬 (ode 264). More on this ode can be found in the chapter on Mo Xi.

春秋

桓公十八年

Translation by James Legge (The Chinese Classics: The Ch'un Ts'ew with the Tso Chuen, p. 70)

十有八年,春,王正月,公會齊侯于濼,公與夫人姜氏遂如齊。
In his eighteenth year, in spring, in the king's first month, the duke had a meeting with the marquis of Qi, near the Luo, after which the duke and his wife, the lady Jiang, went to Qi.

夏,四月,丙子,公薨于齊,丁酉,公之喪至自齊。
In summer, in the fourth month, on bingzi, the duke died in Qi; and on dingyou, his coffin arrived from Qi.

左傳

桓公十八年

十八年,春,公將有行,遂與姜氏如齊,申繻曰,女有家,男有室,無相瀆也,謂之有禮,易此必敗,公會齊侯于濼,遂及文姜如齊,齊侯通焉,公謫之,以告。

In spring the duke, being about to travel, allowed at the same time his wife Jiang to go with him to Qi. Shen Xu said, "The woman has her husband's house; the man has his wife's chamber; and there must be no defilement on either side; then is there what is called propriety. Any change in this matter is sure to lead to ruin." Notwithstanding this remonstrance, the duke had a meeting with the marquis of Qi near the Luo, and then went on with Wan Jiang to Qi, where she had criminal connection with the marquis, her brother. The duke angrily reproached her, and she told the marquis of it.

夏,四月,丙子,享公,使公子彭生乘公,公薨于車,魯人告于齊曰,寡君畏君之威,不敢寧居,來脩舊好,禮成而不反,無所歸咎,惡於諸侯,請以彭生除之,齊人殺彭生。

The marquis feasted the duke, and then, employed Peng Xiang, a half brother of his own, to take him to his lodging in the carriage. The duke died in the carriage, and the people of Lu sent a message to the marquis of Qi, saying , "Our poor lord, in awe of your majesty, did not dare to remain quietly at home, but went to renew the old friendship between your State and our. After the ceremonies had been all completed, he did not come back. We do not fix the crime on any one, but the wicked deed is known among all the princes, and we beg you will take the shame of it away with Peng Xiang." On this, the people of Qi put Peng Xiang to death.

Vocabulary

納 (na4)to capture
瀆 (du2)to disrespect
通 (tong1)to commit adultery
抱 (bao4)to carry in the arms
乘 (cheng2)to mount, to ascend
拉 (la1)to break
脅 (xie2)side of body, ribs
除 (chu2)to get rid of, to eliminate

Questions